Proceedings of ISP RAS

Aggressive Inlining for VLIW

A.Ermolitckii (MCST, Moscow), M.Neiman-Zade (MCST, Moscow), O.Chetverina (MCST, Moscow), A.Markin (MCST, Moscow), V.Volkonskii (MCST, Moscow)


Inline expansion is very important for high performance VLIW, especially for microprocessors with static scheduling. Optimizations in optimizing compilers for VLIW duplicate code aggressively and lead to long compile time. Our inlining algorithm is based on heuristics that takes into account compile time explicitly. This made optimization more balanced and significantly reduced code growth and compile time compared to common inlining approach based on minimization of runtime within constraints. Instead of using hard constraints we are trading run time for compilation time in some proportion. Our heuristics predicts several key optimizations in evaluation of runtime and compile time: code scheduling, global copy propagation, dead code elimination and different loop optimizations. Optimizations prediction reduces the need in profile information which is rarely available in practice. Our implementation of inlining includes cloning, partial inlining and inlining across compilation modules in whole program mode. All this factors make dramatic impact on performance: our inlining implementation in the Elbrus optimizing compiler boost SPEC CPU2006 benchmark performance by factor of 1.41 at the cost of 12% increase of compile time and 7.7% increase of code size on average.


optimization, optimizing compiler, inline expansion, VLIW


Proceedings of the Institute for System Programming, vol. 27, issue 6, 2015, pp. 189-198.

ISSN 2220-6426 (Online), ISSN 2079-8156 (Print).

DOI: 10.15514/ISPRAS-2015-27(6)-13

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