Ivannikov Institute for System Programming of the RAS

Effective spatial reasoning in complex 4D modeling environments.


V.A. Zolotov, K.A. Kazakov, V.A. Semenov


4D modelling technologies and tools have tremendous potential to improve design and con-struction processes especially in complex dynamic environments, which may consist of thousands of individ-ual objects with own geometric representations and dynamic behaviors. Visualization, or more exactly anima-tion, of such environments requires significant computational resources for efficient execution of spatial queries intended for frustum culling, hidden surface removal, employment of level of details, nearest neighbor search, collision detection, which assumes utilization of proper spatial index taking into account peculiarities of arising scenes, including heavy dynamic and hierarchical structure of individual objects. Despite extensive research been directed toward development of spatial index structures for different problems, and numerous structures and their variations had been proposed, we conclude that most of them are not suitable for complex 4D environments. In this paper, we provide a promising method utilizing regular dynamic octrees in conform-ity to individual complex object hierarchies. The method enables to maintain spatial indexes under heavy dy-namics, meanwhile providing abilities to resolve semantically rich queries without any consumable and re-dundant analysis of nested objects. All of the enumerated above along with the conducted computational experiments makes proposed method a promising alternative to traditional indexing methods in context of 4D modeling applications.


eWork and eBusiness in Architecture, Engineering and Construction, ECPPM 2014 Proceedings. Publisher: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. Pp. 181-186.

Research Group

System integration and multi-disciplinary collaborative environments

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